CfP BH: Paradox & History

Organizations in Time: Paradox and History

General outline

A special issue on history and paradoxes would be the first opportunity to start a dialogue between paradox theory and historical research on organizations. Paradox theory has developed in management studies over the last 25 years as an analytical lens with which to understand tensions and conflicting objectives persisting in organizations’ life over time. However, historical organization studies have yet to join the conversation. The theoretical definition of paradoxes as interdependent contradictions enduring for an extended period is grist for the mill of historical organization studies’ scholarship. The study of paradoxes in business history is a promising research avenue.

The intersection between paradox theory and historical perspectives follows the trend towards a growing rapprochement between organization studies and history, as stressed by Mairi Maclean et al. (2021), the most recent in a growing cohort of literature on the topic. Looking at paradoxes in organizational history as a theme makes Business History the perfect academic outlet for this endeavour, an innovation that will bring together a varied and above all interesting set of papers. The guest editors are aware of the challenges posed by the novelty of the topic. This is why the call for papers remains purposefully generic and wide-ranging, rather than focusing on a set of rather specific issues and questions. Such an approach, we think, will be the best way to curate a varied and engaging group of papers. On the other hand, the logistics leading to the final submission of the manuscripts to Business History’s peer-review process provides several opportunities for presenting and discussing the papers. Finally, the guest editors come from both history and management studies, emphasizing the intended interdisciplinary dialogue.

Paradox theory and organization studies

Organizations historically face increased internal and contextual complexity, with pluralistic goals and contradictory stakeholder expectations and objectives, as they co-evolve with their environments. Paradox theory focuses on processes dynamically maintaining equilibrium between multiple nested tensions (Jarzabkowski et al. 2013; Le and Bednarek 2017; Smith & Lewis 2011). Several strands in organization and management studies have adopted a paradox lens over the years, for example, corporate sustainability (Hahn et al. 2015), innovation (Andriopoulos and Lewis 2009; Maclean et al. 2020), employment and the changing nature of work (Mazmanian et al. 2013), partnerships (Bednarek et al. 2017; Sharma and Bansal 2017), and healthcare (Gastaldi et al. 2018). Also, addressing important societal challenges (e.g., climate change, pandemics, poverty) require organizational actors to navigate among multiple tensions inherent to the interest of several stakeholders (Jarzabkowski et al 2019) which are often far from equilibrium.

Recent state-of-the-art articles on paradox theory recognize its importance and potential for understanding complex problems (Smith et al. 2017) but also its potential limits (Cunha and Putman 2019). Some studies emphasize the need to reinforce a systems perspective, attentive to perceived and latent tensions (Schad and Bansal 2018); others challenge researchers to elect specific dimensions in studying organizational paradoxes, especially to focus on time in process studies (Putman et al. 2016).

Business history and paradoxes: terra incognita?

Notwithstanding this invitation to consider time and processes as a fundamental approach for understanding tensions and complexity in organizational studies, historical analyses have rarely featured in paradox theory. Paradoxes have been used in business history as a rhetorical device – “after all, a paradox is an educated person’s delight”, as Charles Hoffer (2008) wrote. They have been used less frequently as heuristics tool for understanding interwoven contradictions over a long period (Silva and Neves 2020). As business history has rarely addressed the prospects opened up by paradox theory, the contribution of historically oriented studies to paradox theory remained absent from scholarship, even after Putman (2016) and her co-authors’ emphasis. Nevertheless, history is a field of study where paradoxes abound. Four examples illustrate this claim, constituting potential research strands.

1) The first relies on the definition of paradox as tensions persisting over time (Smith and Lewis 2011; Putman et al. 2016). In this sense, historical studies, particularly the historical analysis of organizations, are a vast ground for the study of paradoxes. The exacerbation of complexity and paradoxes is inherent to the temporal dimension, much more than in cross-sectional analyses. A historical perspective, turning latent into salient paradoxes, may foster the analytical effort, contributing to theory development. Historical studies disclose unlikely paradoxes, like the ones revealed by the beauty industry (Jones 2010) or the business history of the environment. In this last case, the rise in environmental-protection awareness since the 1960s went along with a deterioration of environmental standards (Bergquist 2019; Boon 2019; Jones 2017). Latent paradoxes are particularly revealing when ambivalent boundaries in business practices and organisations exist, as the relation between profit and non-profit organizations (Herrero and Buckley 2020; Roddy et al. 2019; Ware 1989); hybrid and mixed organisations (Adams 2003; Menzani and Zamagni 2010; Wadhwani et al. 2017); competition and cooperation (Zeitlin 2008; Jones 1993; Colvin 2018; Jenksen-Eriksen 2020); institutions, government and business (Abbate 2001; Campbell-Kelly and Garcia-Swartz 2013; Lin 2006; Sluyterman 2015); and entrepreneurial philanthropy (Harvey et al. 2019).

2) Paradox research would benefit greatly from the particular context-awareness inherent to historical studies. History, being “the discipline of context”, as Braudel defined it, is host to the emergence of paradoxes. The particular irreducibility of context praised by historians (Hoffer 2008) may be deployed as a creative approach to understand complexity and tensions in emergent processes. The study of entrepreneurship reveals an evident difficulty to overcome the “fallacy of the self-made success” (Laird 2017), where the relation between individual and society, as well as the role of contingency, emerge conspicuously (Jones and Wadhwani 2008; Lamoreaux 2001; Wadhwani and Lubinski 2017). Similar complexity and latent paradoxes may arise in the history of international business. Recent scholarship has emphasised the diversity of business forms (Lopes et al. 2019) and the contradictory agendas and demands faced by multinationals (Decker 2018; Lubinsky and Wadhwani 2020; Verma and Abdelrehim 2017). Another almost uncharted territory is the historical analysis of the analytical tools deployed by entrepreneurs, managers, and organisations for managing ambivalence and paradox, like the ones explored by Andersson (2020) concerning business and environmental challenges.

3) In a third instance, the specific epistemology of history mobilizes an intrinsic paradox. The past is analysed and reinterpreted considering interpretative challenges rooted in the present (Bloch 1949), well synthesized in the statement that “history creates its object”, “every history is a child of its time” (Fèbvre 1952). However, it also influences and shapes the present. In organizations and their memorialization, the past is frequently reified as a source of identity (Rowlinson et al. 2014; Casey 2019; Coraiola et al. 2021) and strategic renewal (Maclean et al. 2014; Miller et al. 2019). Studying the institutionalisation of organisational memory provides another way to conceptualise the complex uses of the past: their potential competition and pendular movements from being an asset to becoming a liability (Decker et al. 2020; Hansen 2006; Lubinski 2018).

4) Finally, any paradox has a heuristic function by pinpointing antithetical or puzzling issues and thus raising an “incitation of insight” (Keyser et al. 2019). When time and context exacerbate complexity, ambivalence and contradictions, an in-depth understanding becomes even more compelling. Exemplary cases may be the study of the psychic distance paradox in international retailing (Hang and Godley 2009) or the Icarus paradox in the movement from market dominance to irrelevance (Lamberg et al. 2019; Rooij 2015).

This diversity of themes does justice to the plasticity of historical analysis to develop studies on long-lasting legacies and paradoxes. It also mobilises multiple methodological perspectives and approaches for this special issue topic, testifying to the variety that business history is as “a multidisciplinary field on its own” (Friedman and Jones 2011).

Research topics for the call for papers

In the quest to further bridge paradox theory and historical analysis, the call for papers aims at creating a fertile ground to advance the historical analysis of organizations by contributing to the discussion of a range of research topics, where organizations, paradoxes and history stand in a variety of crossroads:
1) Paradoxes and the historical analysis of organizations: theory and case studies.
2) Research deploying historical sources and methods to refine and develop paradox theory in business and organization studies.
3) Latent paradoxes in the longue durée in history and in organizations.
4) Historical periods of crisis and disruption as occasions for performative “drama” unveiling persistent and latent paradoxes.
5) Paradoxes as heuristics in the historical analysis of organizations: sparking insight and awareness.
6) The memory of the past in organizations: paradoxes in corporate archives, museums, heritage and the strategic use of history.
7) Historical context, narratives and the interpretation of persistent paradoxes.

Submission Instructions

Timetable

1) 2021, 11 October: Abstract submission (max. 500 pages and sent to asilva@novasbe.pt) – please state if you are interested in participating in the Paradox and Plurality Conference, 24 November 2021, in Nova School of Business and Economics (www.novasbe.pt).
2) 2021, 24 November: Paradox and Plurality conference, with a session dedicated to “Organizations in Time: Paradox and History” (Nova School of Business and Economics, Portugal)
3) 2022, 1 September: Submission of manuscripts to the ScholarOne website for peer-review evaluation: https://think.taylorandfrancis.com/special_issues/organizations-time-paradox-history/
4) 2023 April: expected deadline for completion of the peer review process

Hagley History Hangout: Video Games

New episode is available in the Hagley History Hangout

In this episode, Gregory Hargreaves interviews Kevin Bunch about his research into the early history of video games, and his innovative use of Hagley materials to recreate forgotten games. In support of his project, Bunch, a writer & communications specialist at the International Joint Commission, received support from the Center for the History of Business, Technology, & Society.   What makes a video game system commercially successful, and is it possible to resurrect failed and forgotten video games? The RCA collections at the Hagley Library hold the answer to these questions and many more, and the work of Kevin Bunch bring them to light. Combining archival research, oral history, data retrieval, and game emulation, Bunch brings forgotten aspects of twentieth-century computer and video game history to life for a new generation.  

CfP: Business History Conference

REMINDER: 

The deadline to submit proposals for the #BHC2022MexicoCity “Business History in Times of Disruption: Embracing Complexity and Diversity” is approaching. The Program Committee will receive proposals until October 1st, 2021.

We invite participants to submit their proposals before the deadline of October 1rst 2021. We encourage to submit your proposals even if you are still uncertain of traveling to Mexico due current circumstances associated with the pandemic. Though we hope we can all meet in Mexico City, there is a place at the submission webpage to let us know your current preference for paper presentation modality. If conditions warrants, we will make alternative arrangement on an as-needed basis.
 
#BHC2022MexicoCity Annual Meeting General Information
Call for papers in English and instructions
Convocatoria de ponencias en español (con instrucciones para enviar propuestas al final del documento)

If you have any queries or additional comments, please contact us by email: ProgramCommittee@thebhc.org

BHC launches Mid-Year online event

Save the Date for the Business History Conference Mid-Year-Event
The Business History Conference would like to invite you to the first mid-year event/conference. This meeting seeks to become a permanent event of our association to further connect with the membership and engage with scholars and professionals related to the field of business history.

The 2021 mid-year conference will consist of a 120 minutes Zoom webinar to be celebrated on September 28th at 12 ET. The theme of the 2021 seminar will be 

Business History in the Pandemic Era: Rethinking Agendas and Connections
Invited speakers: 
Jessica Levy, Ph.D.,
Geoffrey Jones, Ph.D.,
Heidi Tworek, Ph.D., and
Maki Umemura, Ph.D.

Please mark your calendars and spread the word!
Register today 
#BHC2021midyear

Hagley History Hangout: “Franchise” by Marcia Chatelain

I’ve blogged before about Marcia Chatelain’s Pulitzer Prize winning business history of McDonald’s. The Hagley History Hangout has got a new episode out focusing on her research – check it out below!

New episode is available in the Hagley History Hangout

In Franchise: The Golden Arches in Black America, Marcia Chatelain explores how fast food restaurants saturated black neighborhoods and became, as well, a focal point in the development of “black capitalism.” To tell this story, she charts a surprising history of cooperation among fast food companies, black capitalists, and civil rights leaders, who―in the troubled years after King’s assassination―believed they found an economic answer to the problem of racial inequality. With the discourse of social welfare all but evaporated, federal programs under presidents Johnson and Nixon promoted a new vision for racial justice: that the franchising of fast food restaurants, by black citizens in their own neighborhoods, could finally improve the quality of black life. Synthesizing years of research, Franchise tells a troubling success story of an industry that blossomed the very moment a freedom movement began to wither. 

Marcia Chatelain is a professor of history and African American studies at Georgetown University, and is a leading public voice on the history of race, education, and food culture. The author of South Side Girls, Chatelain lives in Washington, DC. Franchise was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in History and the Hagley Prize for the best book in business history.  

Call for research proposals: Accounting History Symposium

The 16th Accounting History Symposium 

Virtual format: Friday, 3 December 2021 

Following the great success of the 15th Accounting History Symposium, held on July 3, 2021, the Accounting History Special Interest Group (AHSIG) is pleased to announce a second event for the year. 

The 16th Accounting History Symposium will be held on 3 December 2021. 

The Symposium will take place in virtual format (details TBA) and it will be free of charge for AHSIG members and non-members. 

In addition to the virtual presentations of research proposals relating to studies of accounting’s past, a panel of scholars will be in (virtual) attendance, discussing and/or providing feedback on the presentations of the participants. 

We look forward to your participation at the 16th Accounting History Symposium

 Individuals interested in making a presentation about a planned or existing research project are invited to submit a research proposal (of no more than three pages, single-spaced) containing the following: 

1. Project (working) title 

2. Background (or scenario for investigation) 

3. Main research objective in one sentence 

4. Concise key research question(s) 

5. Research methodology 

6. Period selection 

7. Limitations of the study 

8. Expected (original) contribution. 

The final date for submission of research proposals is Friday, 5 November 2021, and should be sent to acchis.sig@gmail.com

If you haven’t already done so, please follow us on Twitter and LinkedIn for our latest updates: 

https://t.co/aWnxYkhT40?amp=1

https://www.linkedin.com/company/65855223

We look forward to welcoming you to the 16th Accounting History Symposium. 

 Giulia Leoni and Maryam Safari 
AHSIG Convenor and Deputy Convenor 

Digital Archives and Heritage annual conference videos now online!

Image of the DCDC21 logo

Did you miss part of, or all of, DCDC21? 

Not to worry. The video recordings from the conference are available online to view at your leisure. 

Discoveries Collections, Discovering Communities (DCDC) is a cross-sectoral conference, hosted by The National Archives, RLUK and Jisc, that brings together the GLAMA sectors (galleries, libraries, archives, museums and academia) to shine a light on our shared experiences, innovations, interests and concerns. The DCDC21 Conference explored how crisis can act as a catalyst for change within libraries, archives, museums, and cultural organisations. 

 > Watch the videos

CfP: Business Archives Council Conference 2021

Call for Papers: Business Archives Council Conference 2021

The Day After Tomorrow: Business Archives and the Climate Crisis

In November this year, all eyes will be on Glasgow as it hosts COP26 – the United Nations Climate Change Conference. The BAC’s annual conference, which will be held on 24 and 25 November 2021, will take the same theme. Given the subject we are discussing and the success of our Zoom conference last year, we will again be offering a virtual format this year with short papers and sessions spread over two half-days.

We would welcome papers and contributions from business historians as well as archivists about, but not limited, to the following themes:

  • Involvement in your parent organisation’s own environmental/climate targets
  • Collecting the records of climate change and businesses in new sectors such as green energy and technologies
  • Collecting the records of traditional hydrocarbon industries and their changes and adaptions for the future
  • Measuring and mitigating the environmental costs of digital preservation
  • Controlling energy use in archive stores through repository design and minimising use of climate controls
  • Working with community or sector groups on action plans to combat climate change
  • Planning for extreme climate change events and their impacts on archives
  • Decolonisation, decarbonisation, extractivism and reparative social justice

We hope that this conference will provide a productive space to advance these conversations and share best practice.

Please submit proposals to sara.kinsey@nationwide.co.uk, stating your name, institution (if applicable), and abstract (no more than 250 words) by 27 September. 

British Academy’s Future of the Corporation

Over the last four years, the British Academy’s Future of the Corporation programme has brought together talented groups of academics, business leaders, investors, civil society leaders and policymakers to explore how business can solve problems for people and the planet. The programme has given unrivaled attention to the questions around how purpose can be placed at the heart of business through policy, practice and business education.

The British Academy invites you to join them to hear their conclusions and discuss the role of policy, practice and business education in firmly embedding purpose in the way business operates. Please register for the launch of our third and final report, Policy and Practice for Purposeful Business, and a series of discussions on adapting business education to purpose on their website.

Request for Proposal (RFP): Researcher for John Ellerman Foundation History Project

2021 marks the John Ellerman’s Foundation’s 50th anniversary and to celebrate this, the Foundation is launching two funding initiatives, and a research project into their history.

The Foundation was set up as a generalist grantmaking trust in 1971. They continue with the broad philanthropic interests of their benefactor Sir John Ellerman, while reflecting changing times. The aim is to advance the wellbeing of people, society and the natural world, by focusing on the arts, environment and social action, as these areas can make an important contribution to wellbeing.

The Foundation is now advertising a funded researcher position and two new funding streams. The below is excerpted from their website.

“In our 50th year, we are looking to do a deep dive into our history, and we are seeking a researcher to help us achieve this. The researcher will bring together the data and information already collected, and conduct further research to analyse the Ellerman family’s business history, as much as their philanthropic one, in order to gain an understanding of the origins of the Foundation’s wealth and how this supports our work today.

We are offering a funded researcher position for 12-months, and are seeking proposals from consortia of organisations or individual researchers.

You can find out more about this project and how to apply in this seven page briefing document here.

If you have any questions, please contact our Office Manager, Rian Trim on recruitment@ellerman.org.uk.

Applications should be submitted by 5pm on 13 September 2021.

Here is some information of the first of the two funding initiatives we are launching this year as well.

A Collaborative Environment Fund for the UK Overseas Territories (UKOTs)

We are contributing £800k to this fund, and invite other funders to join this collaboration or align their funding with it.

The environments of the UK Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are of global significance: they hold 94% of our unique species, pristine rainforests, vast coral reefs, a quarter of the world’s penguins and the fifth largest marine estate on the planet. These small islands are at the forefront of our biodiversity and climate crises: three quarters of the world’s known extinctions since 1500 have occurred on islands, whilst extreme weather events pose a potentially existential threat.

As their biodiversity assets far exceed those in the mainland UK, the Territories offer funders incomparable impact and value for money. Building on our eight years of responsive grantmaking worth £1.8m in the UKOTs, that has achieved transformative impacts, we believe the UKOTs offer funders incomparable impact and value for money.

You can find out more about this collaborative funding initiative in this four page briefing document here.

If you are interested in learning more about this funding collaboration, please contact our Director, Sufina Ahmad on sufina@ellerman.org.uk.

Our plan is to accept applications for this fund from September to December 2021.