PhD Scholarships in “Time and Societal Challenges in a Changing Global Economy”

PhD Scholarships in “Time and Societal Challenges in a Changing Global Economy”

PhD Scholarships in “Time and Societal Challenges in a Changing Global Economy”

Copenhagen Business School invites applications for 6 vacant PhD scholarships within the field of “Time and Societal Challenges in a Changing Global Economy”. The successful applicants will be organized as a cross-departmental cohort with a number of common PhD courses and other activities such as workshops. The positions will be based in the four Departments associated with the OMS Doctoral School: Department of Business and Politics (DBP), Department of Organisation (IOA), Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy (MPP) and Department of Management, Society and Communication (MSC).

Theme of the Cohort

The notions of time and temporality have increasingly become the object of study across the social sciences. Temporality refers to the linear progression of time, historicity, the perception of time, processes of sequencing and order and rates of change as well as the social organization of time. In sociology, for instance, it is becoming increasingly recognized that existing theoretical frameworks, largely rooted in traditional approaches, do not adequately explain the active role of time in a globalizing economy. In the political sciences, the historicity of practices, norms and political ideas and the concept of “political time” have received increased attention particularly in association with questions about the character of continuity and change. Furthermore, analyses of the ways in which political, institutional and ideational processes unfold over time are central to the study of political economy and the shaping of policy processes. Also, in the area of Business Studies, there is an increasing turn of attention to the strategic use of historical narratives in corporate action.

The work of the cohort will challenge prevailing chronological, linear and sequential theories of time in politics and the study of organizations to embrace an active and dynamic view of time. Using innovative theories and methods, it will seek to explain how and why temporal dynamics shape and impact contemporary challenges. These challenges include, for example, globalizing and de-globalizing processes, state capacities in an era of limited economic growth, and the changing relationships between actors, organizations and the institutional frameworks. A particular focus will be put on how temporal structures and processes of sequencing constrain, but at times also empower individual and collective actors (e.g. business, workers, policy makers, civil society representatives), and the ways in which, within that context, those actors seek to reconfigure past, present and future. The work of the cohort will furthermore explore how processes of temporal construction affect the interactions between different actors and institutions in the context of these challenges.

The proposed PhD cohort will draw upon central ideas in philosophy, sociology, political science, history, cultural studies and organization theory. Although students may choose to write a PhD within a particular disciplinary perspective they will be encouraged to draw upon some of the other disciplines that will be utilized and explored within the cohort. We see this interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary cohort which is expected to use a range of innovative theoretical frameworks and sound research designs (including qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods alongside experimental approaches) as the only viable way forward in new research endeavors. There will be a shared understanding that differences in temporalities constituted by factors such as past and future time horizons, mechanisms of connecting past and future in the present, pace and acceleration of change, lead to increased temporal complexity.

Pool of possible topics within the overall theme

Department of Business and Politics (DBP)

• The politics and history of social challenges in a comparative perspective (such as sustainability, inequality, 4th industrial revolution)

• The political economy of European crises: politics, polity and policy
Department of Organization (IOA)

• The role of time in organizing for societal challenges

• Organizational time, learning and innovation

• Organizing time, routines and change
Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy (MPP)

• Time, history and entrepreneurship in a globalized world

• Time and transformations in private-public relations

• The philosophy of time and chronology
Department of Management, Society and Communication (MSC)

• Temporality and talk-action dynamics in CSR

• Varieties of time perceptions attached to multi-stakeholder initiatives

• Colliding temporal orders and new forms of organizing

 

The PhD programme

The PhD programme at CBS is highly international. It allows you to conduct research under the supervision of CBS professors, supported by research training courses (30 ECTS points). You are expected to participate in international research conferences and spend time abroad as a visiting PhD student. For further information on the CBS PhD programme please consult this page: http://www.cbs.dk/en/research/phd-programmes/phd-skoler
It is also required that the applicant shows an interest in joining the respective Department’s research environment. You find information on the departments here: http://www.cbs.dk/en/research/departments-and-centres
CBS PhD graduates are held in high esteem not only in academia and research institutions but also in government and business where their research qualifications are increasingly demanded. One third of CBS PhD graduates go on to employment outside universities and public research institutions.

Copenhagen Business School has a broad commitment to the excellence, distinctiveness and relevance of its teaching and research programmes. Candidates who wish to join us should demonstrate enthusiasm for working in organization of this type (highlighting, for example, relevant business, educational and dissemination activities).

For further information please contact the head of department of the respective department:

• DBP: Prof MSO Caroline de la Porte +4538153550

• IOA: Prof MSO Signe Vikkelsø +4538152827

• MPP: Prof Lotte Jensen +4538153637

• MSC: Associate Prof Dorte Salskov-Iversen +4538153181
For administrative information please contact Henrik Hermansen +45 3815 3656, heh.mpp@cbs.dk.
General information

A PhD scholarship runs for a period of 3 years, and includes teaching obligations equivalent of 1⁄2 year’s work (840 work hours). The scholarships are fully salaried positions, according to the national Danish collective agreement. The scholarship includes the tuition fees, office space, travel grants plus a salary, currently starting with per month app. DKK 23.770 (app. 3,160 euro) up to DKK 28.964 (app. 3,860 euro) depending on seniority, plus a pension contribution totaling 17,1 % of 85 per cent of the base salary.
The salary level and appointment is determined by the Ministry of Finance’s collective agreement with the Central Academic Organization.
The PhD student will be enrolled at the PhD School in Organization and Management Studies (OMS). To be considered, the candidate should have a degree at the Masters level (similar to the 3 + 2 Bologna process). An educational background in philosophy, sociology, political science, history, cultural studies and organization theory or related fields is necessary. The applicant must have successfully completed the Master’s degree before commencing a PhD at CBS. The applicants must be fluent in English.
The application must include a 5 page research proposal following the guidelines available here: http://www.cbs.dk/en/research/phd-programmes/admission
In addition to the research proposal, the application must include copies of a Master’s degree certificate or other certificates of a corresponding level, brief curriculum vitae (CV), a list of papers and publications, and one copy of a selected written work (e.g. Master’s thesis). Applicants must enclose documentation for English language skills if not mother tongue.
Recruitment procedure

The Recruitment Committee will shortlist applicants. The shortlisted applicants will be assessed by the Assessment Committee. All applicants will be notified of their status in the recruitment process shortly after the application deadline.

The applicants selected for assessment will be notified about the composition of the Assessment Committee and later in the process about the result of the assessment.

Once the recruitment process is completed each applicant will be notified of the outcome of their application.

The successful applicants are expected to start their position on September 1 2017.

 

Closing date: June 1, 2017

Copenhagen Business School must receive all application material, including all appendices (see items above), by the application deadline.

Details about Copenhagen Business School and the departments are available at www.cbs.dk.

 

Application Deadline
June 1, 2017
Apply online

History and Intellectual Property

The recent Management and Organization Review (MOR) Volume 13, Issue 1, includes a vigorous exchange on the history and debate over intellectual property discussed in the paper by Mike W. Peng, David Ahlstrom, Shawn M. Carraher, and Weilei (Stone) Shi, followed by two commentaries by Can Huang and Martin Kenney. The issue is available for free download through April 30, 2017.

History and the Debate Over Intellectual Property

Abstract: This article responds to recent calls for organizational research to address larger, more globally relevant questions and to pay attention to history, by analyzing the crucial debate over intellectual property rights (IPR) between the United States and China. Despite the recent US position, the United States has not always been a leading IPR advocate. Rather, it was a leading IPR violator during the nineteenth century. An institution-based view of IPR history suggests that both the US refusal to protect foreign IPR in the nineteenth century and the current Chinese lack of enthusiasm to meet US IPR demands represent rational choices. However, as cost-benefit considerations change institutional transitions are possible. We predict that to the same extent the United States voluntarily agreed to strengthen IPR protection when its economy became sufficiently innovation-driven, China will similarly improve its IPR protection.

PhD Course Historical Approaches

PhD Course “Historical Approaches in Management and Organizational Research”

31 October – 2 November 2016 at Copenhagen Business School

Deadline for registration: 19 Sept. 2016

Aim

In recent years, management and organizations researchers have begun to use historical sources and approaches in their study of organizations and organizing. Building on earlier pleas for an engagement with historical reasoning about organizations (Zald, 1993; Kieser, 1994; Clark and Rowlinson, 2004), these more recent developments have included efforts to develop historical approaches to studying organizational and institutional theory (Suddaby and Greenwood, 2009), strategy (Kahl et al, 2012; Ingram et al, 2012), innovation and entrepreneurship (Forbes and Kirsch, 2010; Popp and Holt, 2013; Wadhwani and Jones, 2014), international business (Jones and Khanna, 2006) and critical management studies (Rowlinson and Proctor, 1999), among other subfields. The turn towards history, however, has also raised a number of complex questions for researchers about the nature of historical knowledge, how it might be employed to address organizational research questions, and how to analyze historical sources and data (Bucheli and Wadhwani, 2014; Rowlinson, Hassard, and Decker, 2014; Kipping and Usdiken, 2014). This seminar will introduce participants to the core theoretical and methodological issues involved in using historical approaches in organizational and management research, and discuss the variety of ways in which history is being used in organization and management studies today.  The seminar will provide participants with both a broad orientation to the theoretical and practical issues involved in the use of historical approaches, and an opportunity to apply these approaches to their own research using smaller breakout groups and discussions.

Course Content

This PhD seminar will provide an introduction to historical approaches to management and organizational research. Day 1 will be devoted to Historical Theorizing, Day 2 to Historical Methods, and Day 3 to Historical Practice.

Day 1, Historical Theorizing, will examine the advantages and limits of using historical perspective to develop theoretical concepts in management and organizational research. Students will be introduced to the unique perspective that history provides and how it can be used by management and organizational scholars. Specifically, we will examine how history provides unique perspectives for developing conceptualizations of: (a) cause and effect, (b) cognition and power, (c) alternatives and counterfactuals.

Day 2, Historical Methods, will examine the nature of historical sources and methods. We will explore basic methods, such as source criticism, triangulation, and hermeneutics, but also advanced methods, including microhistory, conceptual history, and postcolonial history. Participants will also engage in a methods workshop, designed to provide a hands-on experience with source analysis and interpretation.

Day 3, Historical Practice, will be devoted to discussion and feedback on student research. The day will be organized as a series of workshops.

Learning Objectives

The PhD seminar will be designed to allow participants to:

1. Understand the nature of historical approaches and how they compare to other types of ways of studying management and organizations

2. Understand the range of ways in which historical sources, methods, and perspectives can be engaged, including the epistemological assumptions involved in these choices and their implications for the types of research questions that can be addressed

3. Apply these methodological issues and choices to their own research interests through focused breakout groups.

ECTS and Fees

3 ECTS for participation, 4 ECTS for participation and submission of working paper

Fees: DKK 3,900 (participation) or DKK 5,200 (participation with working paper)

Course Schedule and Registration

http://www.cbs.dk/en/research/phd-programmes/phd-courses-0 and http://phdcourses.dk/Course/48516#.VzLiH7df0Ss

AoM Elections Open

2016 Division and Interest Group elections are open now!

For the AoM Members among you,

the 2016 Division and Interest Group elections are open and ready for your participation. Don’t forget to cast your vote to select the future leaders of your Division or Interest Group, such as Management History.

You should have received a link to the election website via email. If you are not a member of Management History yet, please consider joining and casting your vote. Elections close by May 15, 2016.

Program PDW Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship, March 31, 2016 Portland, OR

Supported by the CBS Rethinking History at Business School Initiative David Kirsch, Christina Lubinski, and Dan Wadhwani are hosting a Paper Development Workshop on Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship Theory & Research. The workshop will take place on March 31, 2016, 9am-5pm; immediately before the BHC annual meeting and at the same location: the Embassy Suites by Hilton Downtown Portland, Room: Roy Yates (Lobby Level).

The program below shows an interesting mix of themes and scholars from entrepreneurship studies and history. Please get in touch with Christina Lubinski (cl.mpp@cbs.dk) if you are interested in reading any of the papers.

9:00 – 9:15 a.m.                    Welcome

9:15 – 10:15 a.m.                  Turning Points and Financial Innovation

Commentator: David Kirsch (University of Maryland, College Park)

“Creative Construction: The Importance of Fraud and Froth in Emerging Technologies,” Jonathan Coopersmith (Texas A&M University)

“Entrepreneurship, Financial Systems and Economic Development,” Steven Toms, Nick Wilson and Mike Wright (University of Leeds Business School and Imperial College London)

10:15 – 11:15 a.m.               Entrepreneurial Uses of History

Commentator: Roy Suddaby (University of Victoria)

“The Legacy of 20th Century Black American Entrepreneurs: Education and Entrepreneurial Self –Efficacy,” Carolyn Davis and Keith Hollingsworth (Morehouse College)

“Strategic and Institutional Uses of the Past by Family Philanthropic Foundations,” Ida Lunde Jorgensen (Copenhagen Business School) and Roy Suddaby (University of Victoria)

“An Entrepreneur’s Cathedral: Expressing and Preserving Founder Legacy in a Family Business. The Case of Fiberline Composites,” Ellen M. Korsager and Anders Ravn Sørensen (Copenhagen Business School)

11:15 – 11:45am                   Coffee Break

11:45 a.m. – 12:45 p.m.     Entrepreneurial Biographies Revisited

Commentator: Mads Mordhorst (Copenhagen Business School)

“Entrepreneurs as Actors: Biographical Approaches and the Analysis of Entrepreneurship,” Uwe Spiekermann (Goettingen University)

“Institutional Entrepreneurship and Ideological Rhetoric: Establishing the Global Hotel Industry” Mairi Maclean and Charles Harvey (Newcastle University Business School)

“Paran Stevens and the Birth of Hotel Entrepreneurship,” Daniel Levinson Wilk (Fashion Institute of Technology, New York)

12:45 – 2:15 p.m.                 Lunch

2:15 – 3:15pm                         History and Entrepreneurship

Commentator: Andrew Nelson (University of Oregon)

“What Entrepreneurial History Could Be and Why It Matters,” Dan Raff (Wharton School / University of Pennsylvania)

“Reconciling the JBV and the Past Futures Methodology: Towards a Synthesis and Research Methodology,” Andrew Smith (University of Liverpool) and Kevin Tennent (University of York)

3:15 – 3:45 p.m.                    Coffee Break

3:45 – 4:45 p.m.                    International Entrepreneurship and Institutional Change

Commentator: Geoffrey Jones (Harvard Business School)

“Born Global in 1850: A Historical Method for Understanding Entrepreneurs Across Time and Space,” Michael Aldous (Queen’s University, Belfast)

“Freeing the Market: Entrepreneurship and Institutional Change in Brazil, 1874-1904,” Kari E. Zimmerman and David L. Deeds (University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota)

4:45 – 5:00 p.m.                    Concluding discussion

The purpose of this workshop is to provide scholars with developmental feedback on work-in-progress related to historical approaches to entrepreneurship and strategy, broadly construed. Our aim is support the development of historical research on entrepreneurship for publication in leading journals, including for the special issue of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. In addition to providing feedback and suggestions for specific topics, the workshop will address the commonly faced challenges of writing for a double audience of historians and entrepreneurship/management scholars, engaging entrepreneurship theory and constructs, and identifying the most valuable historical sources and methods in studying entrepreneurial phenomena.

CFP: Workshop Series “Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship” (Copenhagen, May 24, 2016)

CFP: Workshop Series “Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship”

May 24, 2016, Copenhagen Business School

Porcelænshaven 16B, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark, “The Studio” (Ground Floor)

Deadline: April 18, 2016 for abstracts

Conveners: Bill Gartner (Copenhagen Business School), David Kirsch (Univ. of Maryland), Christina Lubinski (Copenhagen Business School, R. Daniel Wadhwani (Univ. of the Pacific), Friederike Welter (Univ. of Siegen and Institut für Mittelstandsforschung Bonn)

 

After previous workshops in Copenhagen (2014), Miami (2015) and Portland (2016) we are happy to announce the fourth workshop in the series “Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship Theory & Research” to be held at Copenhagen Business School on May 24, 2016.

In recent years, both business historians and entrepreneurship scholars have grown increasingly interested in the promise of using historical sources, methods and reasoning in entrepreneurship research. History, it has been argued, can be valuable in addressing a number of limitations in traditional approaches to studying entrepreneurship, including in accounting for contexts and institutions, in understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic change, in providing multi-level perspectives on the entrepreneurial process and in situating entrepreneurial behavior and cognition within the flow of time. Support for historical research on entrepreneurship has grown, with both leading entrepreneurship researchers and business historians calling for the use of historical perspectives and with Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal announcing a call for papers for a special issue devoted to history and entrepreneurship.

The purpose of this workshop is to provide scholars with developmental feedback on work-in-progress related to historical approaches to entrepreneurship and strategy, broadly construed. Our aim is to support the development of historical research on entrepreneurship for publication in leading journals, including for the special issue of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (see, http://sej.strategicmanagement.net/conf-dl/sej-historical-approaches-to-entrepreneurship-research.pdf). In addition to providing feedback and suggestions for specific topics, the workshop will address the commonly faced challenges of writing for a double-audience of historians and entrepreneurship/management scholars, engaging entrepreneurship theory and constructs, and identifying the most valuable historical sources and methods in studying entrepreneurial phenomena. We welcome work-in-progress at all stages of development. Interested scholars may submit two types of submissions for discussion: full research papers (8,000 words) or paper ideas (1,000 to 3,000 words).

The workshop will take place at Copenhagen Business School, one of the world leading environments for historical research at business schools and universities. If you have questions or are interested in participating, please submit an initial abstract of max. 300 words and a one-page CV before Monday, April 18, 2016 to David Kirsch (dkirsch@rhsmith.umd.edu), Christina Lubinski (cl.mpp@cbs.dk) or Dan Wadhwani (dwadhwani@pacific.edu). Invitations to the workshop will be sent out before April 28, 2016. Full paper (8,000) and paper idea (1,000 to 3,000 words) submissions will be expected by Friday, May 13, 2016. If you are planning to submit to the SEJ special issue, please follow the journal’s formal guidelines (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291932-443X/homepage/ForAuthors.html).

Please feel free to contact the organizers with your paper ideas if you are interested in early feedback or want to inquire about the fit of your idea with this PDW.

The Broader Project

This workshop is part of a larger project that seeks to examine how analytical attention to history, context, and time may reshape theories of entrepreneurship as well as how these theories in turn allow us to re-consider how we account for agency, time and change in history. It follows on previous workshops in Copenhagen (2014), Miami (2015) and Portland (2016). The project is in the process of developing an intellectual community comprised of both historians and entrepreneurship theorists engaged in multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary research on entrepreneurial history. Some of the questions the broader project will address include:

  • What is the relationship between theories of history and theories of entrepreneurship? How have they shaped one another over time and what are the ways in which they do so today?
  • In what ways different contexts (time, institutions, spatial contexts etc.) viewed in history and in entrepreneurship theory? How can more critical views of time and context contribute to our understanding of entrepreneurial behavior and the entrepreneurial process?
  • How do differences in methods and theorization matter to our understanding of entrepreneurship? Specifically, how should we think about the relationship between historians’ emphasis on deep context and narrative explanation and entrepreneurship researcher’s preference for valuing theoretical propositions from the point of view of advancing intellectual exchange between the two fields? What should we make of the tension between the theoretical inclination to gain insight through abstraction and the historical inclination to gain insight through contextualization? In what ways can the tension be productive or useful?
  • How does “history” or “the past” manifest itself in the entrepreneurial process? Is it constraining or enabling, and if “it depends,” then on what conditions does it depend? How is history “used” in the entrepreneurial process?
  • What is the relationship between narrative and history within the entrepreneurial process?
  • Can historical contextualization of the current moment (1970s-present) in entrepreneurship thought and practice help shed light on the present?
  • Can a deeper engagement with entrepreneurship theory allow us to understand the past in new ways and produce new history?

Individual and institutional support

The workshop and broader project is an initiative of the Copenhagen Business School’s Centre for Business History and Department of Management, Politics, and Philosophy in collaboration with scholars and institutions throughout Europe and North America. We are also grateful for support from the Entrepreneurship Platform and the Rethinking History in Business Schools Initiative at CBS.

CFP: Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship

Call For Papers

Historical Approaches to Entrepreneurship Theory & Research

 

March 31, 2016

Embassy Suites by Hilton Downtown Portland

319 SW Pine Street, Portland, OR 97204

 

Deadline: January 22, 2016 for abstracts

In recent years, both business historians and entrepreneurship scholars have grown increasingly interested in the promise of using historical sources, methods and reasoning in entrepreneurship research. History, it has been argued, can be valuable in addressing a number of limitations in traditional approaches to studying entrepreneurship, including in accounting for contexts and institutions, in understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic change, in providing multi-level perspectives on the entrepreneurial process and in situating entrepreneurial behavior and cognition within the flow of time. Support for historical research on entrepreneurship has grown, with both leading entrepreneurship researchers calling for the use of historical perspectives and with Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal announcing a call for papers for a special issue devoted to history and entrepreneurship.

The purpose of this workshop is to provide scholars with developmental feedback on work-in-progress related to historical approaches to entrepreneurship and strategy, broadly construed. Our aim is support the development of historical research on entrepreneurship for publication in leading journals, including for the special issue of Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. In addition to providing feedback and suggestions for specific topics, the workshop will address the commonly faced challenges of writing for a double-audience of historians and entrepreneurship/management scholars, engaging entrepreneurship theory and constructs, and identifying the most valuable historical sources and methods in studying entrepreneurial phenomena. We welcome work-in-progress at all stages of development. Interested scholars may submit two types of submissions for discussion: full research papers (8,000 to 12,000 words) or paper ideas (1,000 to 3,000 words).

The workshop will take place immediately before the BHC meeting and at the same location but is managed separately. Participation in BHC meeting and workshop is possible. If you have questions or are interested in participating, please submit an initial abstract of max. 300 words and a one-page CV before Friday, January 22, 2016 to David Kirsch (dkirsch@rhsmith.umd.edu), Christina Lubinski (cl.mpp@cbs.dk) or Dan Wadhwani (dwadhwani@pacific.edu). Invitations to the PDW will be sent out before February 1, 2016. Full paper (8,000 to 12,000 words) and paper idea (1,000 to 3,000 words) submissions will be expected by Friday, March 11, 2015. Please feel free to contact the organizers with your paper ideas if you are interested in early feedback or want to inquire about the fit of your idea with this PDW.

The Broader Project

This workshop is part of a larger project that seeks to examine how analytical attention to history, context, and time may reshape theories of entrepreneurship as well as how these theories in turn allow us to re-consider how we account for agency, time and change in history. It follows on previous workshops in Copenhagen and Miami in 2014. The project seeks to develop an intellectual community comprised of both historians and entrepreneurship theorists engaged in multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary research on entrepreneurial history. Some of the questions the broader project will address include:

  • What is the relationship between theories of history and theories of entrepreneurship? How have they shaped one another over time and what are the ways in which they do so today?
  • In what ways are time and context viewed in history and in entrepreneurship theory? How can more critical views of time and context contribute to our understanding of entrepreneurial behavior and the entrepreneurial process?
  • How do differences in methods matter to our understanding of entrepreneurship? Specifically, how should we think about the relationship between historians’ emphasis on deep context and narrative explanation and entrepreneurship researcher’s preference for valuing theoretical propositions from the point of view of advancing intellectual exchange between the two fields? What should we make of the tension between the theoretical inclination to gain insight through abstraction and the historical inclination to gain insight through contextualization? In what ways can the tension be productive or useful?
  • How does “history” or “the past” manifest itself in the entrepreneurial process? Is it constraining or enabling, and if “it depends,” then on what conditions does it depend? How is history “used” in the entrepreneurial process?
  • What is the relationship between narrative and history within the entrepreneurial process?
  • Can historical contextualization of the current moment (1970s-present) in entrepreneurship thought and practice help shed light on the present?
  • Can a deeper engagement with entrepreneurship theory allow us to understand the past in new ways and produce new history?

Individual and institutional support

The workshop and broader project is an initiative of the Copenhagen Business School’s Centre for Business History and Department of Management, Politics, and Philosophy in collaboration with scholars and institutions throughout Europe and North America. We are grateful for financial support from the Entrepreneurship Platform and the Rethinking History in Business Schools Initiative at CBS.